Have a thematic repertoire means that the individual can interact linguistically with the objects or events regarding the topic, transcending its apparent physical characteristics, and independently of its physical presence. The thematic repertoire is a result of the linguistic history of the individual that has specific objects or events.
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The third repertoire is the instrumental, which regards to the general and specific skills for each type of text. The delimitation of these actions, performed during comprehensive reading, depends of the conceptualization of reading comprehension.
Fuentes and Ribes consider that comprehensive reading is center in the instrumental skills that correspond to the functional characteristics of the text. In order for the reading to be comprehensive is necessary, but not enough, to read textually, so, read comprehensively, refers to the act in which the reader responds to the conventional properties of the text, as a stimulus that relates to divers objects and natural or linguistic events, and to the behavioral practices related to that.
When we talk about the text used as study materials, Fuentes points out that there are three different forms. The first is called behavioral modality, in this form, the writer requires the reader to do something with or about the text. The second form is the constative, in which the reader describes, narrates or mentions objects or extrasituational events.
In these types of texts, the writer writes, describes, mentions or shows objects, situations, properties, sequences of events, etc. These texts always have an extra situational pertinence. In the final form, called definitional, the writer introduces symbolic or linguistic interactions that exemplified or require the meeting of normative criteria to be understood. The stimuli object of these texts has a transituational pertinence. In Mexico, the school system is conformed by three levels: the basic, the high school and the college level, in which this research was developed. According to a national census, by , the country had public universities and in the private sector, in these institutions, almost 2.
The research was developed in six different institutions of college level from the public sector, located in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. From each participating institution a representative sample of students was selected using a stratified sampling technique. The participants were selected by opportunity, using the inclusion criteria of being regular students in a college institution, accepted to participate voluntarily in the research and to sign the informed consent form.
The participants that do not answer the test completely and whom once enrolled in the research decided not to keep participating, were excluded. A test was designed by the researchers based in the interbehavioral theory. The test consisted of a text and five sections: a sociodemographic page, three different test to evaluate the precurrent repertoires word recognition, phrase recognition and use of lexicon and one for the reading comprehension.
The text was designed from different academic texts, it consisted of words distribute intro four pages with 12 point Times New Roman font and a 1.
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The functional modality of the text was constative, in which objects or extrasituational events are mention, describe or narrate. The sociodemographic page included demographic and academic data. The first section gathers information about age, gender, marital status and the maximum school level attained by parents.
The second section gather data about the college attended by the participant, the school level study currently and the grades obtained in the last evaluation. The first test for the precurrent repertoires, word recognition, consisted in a two column evaluation: one with 10 key words and the other with 12 definitions, of which 10 options defined the key words and two functions as distractors. The second test evaluated the phrase recognition, consisting of two columns as well: the first had 12 literal phrases taken from the text and the second with 10 paraphrased phases.
The instruction in this test was to relate the 10 literal phrases with its corresponding paraphrased version from the second column. The third test evaluated the precurrent repertoire use of lexicon, consisting of 10 incomplete phrases, non-literal to the text, and a listing of 12 key words at the end of the page, with which the participant needed to complete the phrases.
The final test, designed to evaluate the reading comprehension, consisted in an evaluation of extrasituational skills, presenting 15 items in which the participant needed to stablish connections between the text fragments and everyday situations that related to the text content.
For the establishment of the test fiability, a interjudges content validity test was applied, obtaining a Content Validity Index of. The fiability was calculated using KuderRicharson test, with a resulting value of 0. The test implementation was developed in two phases during a single session. In the first phase, the constative text was delivered to the participant, and when they finished reading it, the text was taken away, proceeding to deliver the sociodemographic page and the precurrent repertoires tests, the participant was not allowed to review the text during the answer of these tests.
In the second phase, the constative text was delivered again to the participant along with the reading comprehension test, considering that the aim was to evaluate the reading comprehension and not the memory, the participant was allowed to consult the text during the answering of the test. There was not limit time for the reading of the text and the answer of the tests, however, the average time for answering the tests was 50 minutes. The tests were graded according to the number of correct answers obtained by the participants, in the precurrent repertoires test, the right answers obtained by the participant were categorized into low, average and high levels, meanwhile in the reading comprehension test, the results were categorized in approved and non-approved.
Once the tests were graded, we proceeded to encode and capture the results into a data base in the SPSS version Descriptive analysis was performed, using distribution and variability measures, as means, standard deviation and frequencies.
The data obtained for the precurrent and reading comprehension tests was categorized into ranges low, medium and high using the total score obtained for the participants. The z-score was calculated, taking as low, the data values lower than minus two standard deviations; as medium, the scores between minus two and plus two standard deviations, and, as high the values over plus two standard deviations.
As ethical aspects of the research, the participants signed an informed consent form in which was explained that the participation in the study was voluntary, having the option to withdraw from the research at any point without any academic consequences, given that the participation in the study did not had value for the school grades.
Also, the form explained the respect for the anonymity of the participants and the confidentiality of the results.
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Finally, the participants were informed that if anyone would like to know the results obtained in the tests, they could request them to the main researcher. The mean age of the participants was About the sociodemographic data, the majority of the participants were women, single and without any payed occupation Table 1.
Academically, the mean of the grades is Table 2 shows the maximum school level attained by the parents of the participants and stands out among the results that the father school level tends to be higher than the mothers. In the results of the precurrent repertoire tests it was possible to find that the majority of the participants were located in the low levels for precurrents one and two, deferring from the results in precurrent three, where the majority of the sample were located in a high level Table 3.
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Table 1. Sociodemographic description of the sample. Table 2. School levels attained by parents. Table 3. Results obtained for the precurrent tests. For the reading comprehension test, the majority of the participants were located in an average level, although it is important to point out that only two subjects scored in a high level Table 4.
In Table 5 is presented the distribution of the sample when the results are grouped into approved and non-approved. Standing out that the majority of the participants did not pass this test. A statistical significant association was found between the participants that obtained low scores for the precurrent one and those how approved the reading comprehension test, not like that for the results for precurrents two and three Table 6.
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Table 4. Reading comprehension levels. Table 5. Results for the reading comprehension test. Table 6. Association between precurrents and reading comprehension. Based on that statement, it would possible to say that if we perform an evaluation of the lexicon repertoires and reading comprehension skills, if we find high levels of lexicon precurrents, we should find high levels of reading comprehension, although, this might not be the case, given that in our results, only an association and not a correlation was found between one component of the lexicon repertoire word recognition and the reading comprehension levels.
According to this finding, it would be possible to consider that although the subject might have a vast lexicon repertoire, it is not possible to ensure its use for the establishment of reading comprehension skills, inferring that even when the college level students are exposed to high levels of information, this might not be used to get to interact comprehensively with the text. In summary, the findings of the research showed that the majority of the participants scored low for the precurrent repertories word and phrase recognition, meanwhile, for the third precurrent, corresponding to the use of lexicon, the prevalence was higher for the average level.
In the reading comprehension topic, the great majority of the participants did not approved the test. The association between the precurrent and the reading comprehension tests was analyzed, finding only one statistically significant association between the precurrent one: word recognition, and the reading comprehension.
The study limitations relate to the fact that the results are limited only to the college students from the institutions that participated in the research, being necessary to perform future research that includes students from other college careers, lower school levels, professors and efficient readers, so it could be possible to compare the results obtained. Another limitation of this research is that only one type of text was used for the evaluation of the precurrent repertoires, making important to develop studies that include different type of texts that allows a more comprehensive evaluation.
Finally, the psychometric characteristics of the test presented are initial, being necessary to develop future controlled research, such as a case-control studies, where could be possible to compare the results obtained by readers with high comprehensive skills against those with low level skills, allowing to evaluate better the psychometric characteristics of the tests used for the data collection of this research. However, despite its limitations, the study results should be taken into consideration for the development of future research and intervention strategies, being one of the most important the precurrent one, two and comprehension reading low levels obtained and the association between the precurrent one word recognition and the reading comprehension.