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In its convention, the Garveyite movement suggested that Islam be adopted as its official religion, since the majority of Africans were Muslims. Although Garvey did not accept this proposal, several of his followers compared him at one time to the Prophet Muhammad. Elijah Muhammad's spiritual and political conversion to Islam clearly resulted from his involvement with earlier black-nationalist movements. He was obviously influenced by Garvey's exhortation to his followers not to seek guidance from white leaders, but to follow the guidance of black ones.

Elijah Muhammad also learned from Drew Ali and the Moorish Temple that Christianity was not the black man's original faith.

He adopted the need to emphasize economic independence and self-reliance from the Garveyite movement, which stressed industry, commerce and education in every one of its conventions. Marcus Garvey had been mistrustful of educated blacks who denied their own people. Elijah Muhammad carried this a step further by explicitly discrediting such middle-class black organizations as the National Urban League and the NAACP, neither of which took up the struggle of the poor and working classes.

Thus, Elijah Muhammad wrote:. More than Marcus Garvey and Drew Ali, Elijah easily appreciated the nexus of religion, economics, politics and racial justice. Thus, he was able to make of the NOI the highest stage of black nationalism in America. Targeting this community through a long-standing program of surveillance, infiltration, provocation, and divisiveness, the FBI kept the organization constantly under a watchful eye.

Added to this were the deliberate distortions purveyed by an unsympathetic press that emphasized the challenge to black-American Christianity posed by this faith. The issues arousing suspicion were constantly changing, although similar postures by later groups drew the FBI into the Afro-American community for similar reasons. As early as , the Chicago residence of Elijah Muhammad was raided and several boxes of documents confiscated, yielding valuable information on the NOI.

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This information dated back to the disappearance of the movement's original founder, W. Fard Muhammad, who was known by his followers as the Lord King, or "God in human form. Elijah Muhammad was taken into custody and booked on charges of avoiding the draft.

His group was seen as a fifth column, which opened him up to charges of sedition. In today's version of these events, Arabs and Muslims are picked up by security agencies and charged with violating immigration laws; in the s, it was evading the draft. Today, immigrants are accused of secret ties to invisible centers of international terrorism with which the United States is at war, but then, agitators were accused more seriously of harboring ties to the Japanese.

Fard Muhammad had already, in , been accused of maintaining ties to a suspicious Japanese national known as Satohata Takahashi. Anticipating the arrival of mysterious ships that would take them to Hawaii or the mother plane, an NOI minister in Milwaukee named Sultan Muhammad wrote to The Messenger:. Like any oppressed group, the NOI saw in a victorious Japan an imminent release from their oppression.

FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover was moved to take a closer look at the NOI as rumors began to circulate about secret shipments of weapons from the Japanese to black nationalist groups.

Nation of Islam is a shadow of the group that Muhammad Ali joined

These reports by FBI field offices insisted that weapons were stockpiled in black neighborhoods of major American cities. Elijah Muhammad was also on the run at the time, changing residences and aliases with dizzying frequency in order to avoid the draft. He was finally caught, due to reports by moles in the local mosque who saw him enter the place of worship but could not testify to his departure.

He was charged for failure to register for the draft. When large amounts of money were seized from members of the NOI days later, the FBI concluded that these came from mysterious Japanese sources. No effort was spared to link black dissidents, particularly the NOI, with secret Japanese agents in order to accuse them of conspiracy. Additionally, the FBI will always be linked in the minds of Afro-Americans to surveillance, subversion and a peculiar way of enforcing civil-rights legislation. It would not be possible to comprehend the impact of the organized civil-rights movement in the s without coming to grips with the nature of the FBI's role in pushing and interfering with its growth.

Hoover, who apparently found multiple ways of neglecting the enforcement of civil-rights legislation and procrastinating in the pursuit of the obstacles to the realization of these laws, was primarily concerned with the communist threat within the United States. This may be in itself justifiable, were it not for the fact that he defined the communist threat broadly in order to include under this rubric anyone who fought for racial equality.

This allowed him to spy on blacks and infiltrate their groups under the excuse of chasing communist infiltrators. The commitment to non-violence evinced by the civil-rights movement made no difference to Hoover and his men, who were present at every civil-rights demonstration or organized activity, no matter how peaceful. Malcolm X became a target of the FBI simply due to his rhetoric of violence, not his actions.

Throughout the civil-rights period, the FBI established a record of pursuing communists and ordinary criminals, rather than racist enemies of the civil-rights movement itself. This organization continued to placate the intelligence agency in the hope of persuading its officials to appoint black FBI agents, a goal that was not achieved. Harmonious relations between the FBI and the civil-rights organization continued until the first years of the Eisenhower administration.

Even during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, when the latter succeeded in gaining the passage of an ambitious civil-rights bill, Hoover remained focused on seditious groups rather than on attacks on civil-rights figures by the Ku Klux Klan KKK. The purpose of this large operation, which involved representatives of 41 FBI field offices, was "to prevent the.

It even suggested that, had Malcolm X lived, he "might have been such a 'messiah'; he is the martyr of the movement today. The prophecy of a black messiah, first circulated during the Garveyite movement, had finally drawn the FBI's gaze to Malcolm X. As he began to reflect the views of black nationalist militants and embrace the worldview of Pan-Africanism, his figure loomed larger than that of Elijah Muhammad across the stage of the civil-rights movement.

Once his star began to rise, the FBI established a retrospective file on him, illuminating previously neglected facets of his life in the s and s.

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Malcolm's activities and rhetoric became more alarming once his break with Elijah led him to call for greater black political and economic autonomy through the development of racial pride and communal solidarity. Malcolm X and black nationalist activists were transforming the consciousness of the Afro-American community, demanding rights beyond what was specified in the Constitution.

Malcolm X's critique of the centrist elements within the civil-rights movement did not preclude his cooperation with its more radical wings. During the s, Malcolm's and Elijah's cool reaction to Martin Luther King's emerging national status as a black leader raised alarm in the intelligence community.

The group's most famous convert is activist Malcolm X.

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Snoop Dogg's career has spanned nearly two decades and has been as controversial as it has been successful. He has been arrested numerous times, mainly for possession of marijuana, and was charged as an accomplice to the murder of Phillip Woldermarian in The rapper was found not guilty. He sought to reinvent himself as a family man with the recent reality show Snoop Dogg's Father Hood, which portrays his domestic side along with his wife and three children. However, he was prevented from entering the UK in following a previous violent incident at Heathrow airport.

He also expanded the movement internationally, opening centres in England and Ghana. He gained notice outside the African American community in when he aligned himself with the U.

Farrakhan steadily gained nationwide support for his encouragement of African American business and his efforts to reduce drug abuse and poverty. By the s he had emerged as a prominent African American leader, as demonstrated by the success in of the Million Man March in Washington, D. Farrakhan toned down his racial rhetoric and moved the group toward orthodox Islam after a bout with prostate cancer in An estimated 10, to 50, people are members of the Nation of Islam.

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